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Reaching the next billion – Insights into the Agriculture sector in India



Krishna Mishra, founder of eKutir, shares his insights into the agriculture sector in India with the Asian Entrepreneur. Krishna is a social entrepreneur running a for profit social business, eKutir, to work for the progress of small and marginal farmers and improve their socio-economic state.

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More than 54 per cent of Indian workforce as per 2011 census is engaged in agriculture. And, it for the last 20 years has been trying to get 4% rate of growth in agriculture and has failed. The rate of agriculture growth since the reforms began has hovered around 3.2-3.3 per cent. The agriculture industry in India is totally fragmented and the supply chain is marred by inefficiency. The alienated environment creates a high risk for farmers and as a result there is no trust in the market, no convergence of service providers at the farmer point, and no collaboration amongst the service providers at the first-mile.

The risks agriculture entrepreneurs are confronted with today; involve the ethical attitude of big companies who are supplying products to the BoP and logistics issues at the last-mile.

Approximately 78 percent of India’s farmers are small and marginal (farmers who own less than five acres of land). A farming cycle is such that a small and marginal farmer, with an income of about $1 a day, is required to undertake various activities apart from laboring on the field including best growth practices to manage the land, access to credit and market information, organize transport, and identify buyers for the produce.

Although there are enterprises, including government agencies, private companies and charitable organizations, which provide farmers with such products and services, a farmer is often not equipped with information to choose the product best suited for him/her or the manner of its application. Even if farmers are equipped with this information, different vendors provide products and services. Consequently, to acquire the potential help, farmer would have to go to each in turn, incurring expenses at each step, to procure what is needed. Because they are economically fragile and situated in remote areas, such farmers are in fact dependent on the ability of local people or institutions to reach out to them. Since many potential services are not easily accessible, farmers are often left with no choice but to use what they can reach locally, irrespective of quality or cost.

Limited by reach and capacity, a farmer’s inability to procure quality products and services multiplies the level of risk. For example, even if a farmer receives access to credit, he/she is adversely affected if they receive contaminated or diluted seeds or is unable to get timely access to the market for selling. Factors that reduce the income also reduce credit-worthiness for the next crop cycle. This cycle creates a systemic risk for the farmer that becomes a vicious loop for poverty.

The complex supply chain for various agricultural inputs (such as seeds and fertilizers) involving a series of actors, amplifies the risk faced by farmers. The agricultural market is controlled and managed by middlemen and cartels, and it is common for distributors and retailers to taint the products received from manufacturers before selling it to the farmers. Multiple brands and products, many of which are not genuine, flood the markets making it hard for farmers to make the right choice and identify quality products. For instance, at one point close to 2,000 brands of hybrid seeds of cotton were being sold in the state of Andhra Pradesh.


Moreover, most small and marginal farmers are largely ignorant of guarantees provided by the manufacturers. For instance, although the law requires seed companies to provide a guarantee of 80 percent germination, the retailers make few farmers aware of this right. The role of multiple actors in the supply chain also makes it harder to allocate responsibility. As a result of this complex supply chain, on one hand, seed and fertilizer companies find it challenging to reach markets directly and on the other, farmers receive spurious and adulterated products. The existing supply chain also perpetrates and amplifies a huge information gap between the needs of the farmer and the services that are provided.

All of these factors have resulted in farming becoming an unattractive, unviable livelihood opportunity. With these critical gaps to be addressed, eKutir through an enterprise paradigm started creating favorable opportunities for the farmers, to benefit their economic livelihoods.

Would you mind walking us through the process of how eKutir first began?

I recognized the complexity in farming: the criticality of timeliness, weather conditions, and choice of inputs and interconnectedness of each factor with another. Organizing farmers’ bottom-up through a local distribution network of micro-entrepreneurs, I have introduced a sophisticated ICT platform that enables group of farmers to analyze diverse interconnected factors, make critical decisions, and manage agriculture delivery processes to effectively compete in the market.

In order to build a demand-driven system, I identify and support local micro-entrepreneurs who become the ‘go-to’ person within the village for farmers. They build a participatory framework by organizing and partnering with groups of farmers to understand their contexts and needs. Based on farmers’ needs and using cutting-edge software applications (web/mobile), the micro-entrepreneurs create a comprehensive portfolio of farmers, which maps and analyzes the risks faced by each farmer. Leveraging such technology, they assist farmers in crop, resource, and financial planning. The micro-entrepreneurs then enable the farmers to take tangible action based on recommendations and feed their demand for different products and services into a centralized technology platform. Based on aggregated demand from the farmers and again from the micro-entrepreneurs, eKutir builds appropriate partnerships with agro-stakeholders, including university experts, soil scientists, seed, pesticide and fertilizer suppliers and buyers to match the farmer needs.

To sum up; in addition to making farming an attractive profession, eKutir is building an independent supply chain platform that is driven by the demand of farmers, assures quality, and increases access to markets for multiple institutions. It also allows farmers to benefit from their collective negotiating power while still making individual choices for products and services.

What were the challenges you faced when eKutir started?

Agriculture and poverty are two complex systems that are so intertwined that a failure of one will beget failure in another. The difficulty while starting out was to identify the most common problem faced by majority of farmers or what is called the low-hanging fruit and address it well. In the agriculture cycle, there are multitudes of gaps that need to be bridged; yet the most feasible for eKutir was to work on soil testing, soil health, and nutrient recommendation, considering a large percentage (~80%) of the farmers shy away from soil testing in Odisha.

These three elements impact crop yield, farmer income, and input costs. Optimal utilization of nutrients and timely results based on soil testing positively impact the aforementioned elements, driving up the agriculture income and yield.

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Once we identified the low hanging fruit, we wanted a cost-effective way to reach out to the farmers. Leveraging technology seemed like a viable option, but the mode of technology had to be defined. Ownership of mobile phones among the farmers had increased but the efficacy of SMS based services and voice-based services were uncertain. We thought of addressing the digital literacy among the farmers, but realized that this is a time-consuming process and the cost-benefit to the farmer was realized after a long period of time. Time was one factor that we could not ignore, as it is indispensable for a farmer. We devised an agent-led model, where a digitally trained resource from the community level will be responsible to interact with the farmers and will be incentivized on the basis of transactions and services provided. When we prototyped this, it had a positive impact both at the farmer and the agent level. Instead of linking the agent to eKutir, we decided to create an independent distribution channel of micro-entrepreneurs (or agents) who would be owned by eKutir or franchised to other field partners that will use the software applications for extending agriculture services for the benefit of the farmer.

This helped eKutir address the twin gap of accessibility through the distribution network and customer relationship with the farmers, a largely overlooked area in dealing with resource poor client or communities.

Can you tell us more about the products and service eKutir offers?

eKutir piloted mrittika, a software application that recommends nutrient application on the basis of soil-testing analysis. The value proposition of this tool was to equip the farmers with the necessary knowledge about their soil, crops to be grown, and the requisite application of nutrients and fertilizers, basis of soil characteristics.

When the first phase of pilot was conducted with 300 farmers, it created excitement among the farmers on seeing the soil testing conducted in front of them at their farm. When the test results were presented, the farmers were astonished with the appropriateness of soil analysis, as majority of these farmers had faced challenges in procuring the soil testing report timely, from the soil health centers established by the Government. The approach of using mobile soil test kits at the farm increased the inquisitiveness of the farmer and helped in disseminating appropriate knowledge on testing and soil health.

Post soil testing, the results were entered in to mrittika, which on the basis of the farmer information captured provided the quantity, quality, and availability of nutrient/fertilizer on the farmland. The software tool had a detailed step-wise algorithm at the back-end with a simplistic user interface to help the micro-entrepreneur enter details and get corresponding recommendations. The software application allowed localization and customization, tailored to a particular region. When compared with the current dosage given by the farmers, it was understood that there was over-application of fertilizers, which were spurious, and were bought at unfair prices.

To test the efficacy of mrittika, a control and treatment group were created. The control group applied the same dosage wherein the treatment group applied the dosage recommended by mrittika with the nutrient procured through eKutir. The results were overwhelming for the treatment group with the best farmer showing 133% reduction in costs, 200% increased crop yield, and 250% increased income on the crop. This established farmer’s trust in eKutir and helped us organically increase our outreach without any additional marketing.

The initial reaction of the farmers helped eKutir build a sense of trust and credibility, which increased farmer’s confidence in the system, and made them understand that this is a non-exploitative way to help them become more productive.

As, we believe in designing appropriate software applications to benefit the needs of the farmers, eKutir came up with additional tools like ankur, FPMT, TIME Tool, and so on to help address the small gaps in the agriculture value chain, with a vision to create a suite of ICT-enabled tools that will help drive our mission to benefit millions of smallholder farmers.


How would these micro-entrepreneurs compete with the big players in the industry?

We as social entrepreneurs must thrive to build a shared and collaborative eco-system rather than a competitive one, in order to benefit the farmers. There are social enterprises (for-profit and not-for-profit) that are addressing to the challenges of farmers in their unique way and have made considerable positive impact. Yet, there is a long way to go and collaboration will help in binding best methodologies and approaches together for the farmer’s benefit.

The entrepreneurs working at the BoP have the knowledge of the need, the gaps, and have designed the solution to address the need. The big players have capital and resources but need an ethical partner to reach to the BoP. Combining these two will mutually benefit both stakeholders and create an all-inclusive, market-driven approach to solving the bigger challenges and ramping up outreach and impact.

It is this competition that has created such a dysfunction in the agriculture value chain today. If we are to make advances in agriculture and farmer growth, a collaborative framework to converge at the BoP will be indispensable.

What are your personal goals and what is the future for eKutir Agriculture?

My personal goal is to mentor hundreds of social entrepreneurs to address to the problems of the BoP farmers and farming communities. The future for eKutir Agriculture is to reach out to all the resource poor farmers in India and globally with its products through a partnership model and create maximum impact for the society at large.

I believe that to find catalytic, scalable solutions to global farming challenges, agriculture should be seen from an enterprise paradigm, not a charity. eKutir’s transformative solution offers a variety of new approaches. Many other attempts to spread agricultural best-practice knowledge have run into challenges of literacy, which our model can help mitigate.

Real-time information delivery systems are important in agriculture, and technology-enabled solutions like ours can create a live platform to farmers and all other players in the eco-system. A system where information is gathered at the grassroots farmer-level will provide important data to inform policymakers and decision-makers along the value chain. Farmers need to be empowered and enabled by knowledge.

This proven system has the potential to dramatically increase the incomes, well being, and quality of life for millions of farmers around the world.


Honesty, dedication, empathy, and a spirit of leadership will be the key values to successful entrepreneurship. eKutir strongly believes that a person should have all these traits and values in him/her for success in the BoP market. Agriculture; as it has the power of changing the profile of the poor, which will be visible to the beneficiaries. Farmers as changemakers; as they constitute the majority of the population, are the custodian of the earth, stewards of natural resources, and feed 7 billion people around the globe. 

YouTube: How eKutir works


Women on Top in Tech – Dawn Dickson, Founder and CEO of PopCom, Inc. and Founder of Flat Out of Heels



(Women on Top in Tech is a series about Women Founders, CEOs, and Leaders in technology. It aims to amplify and bring to the fore diversity in leadership in technology.)

Dawn Dickson is the Founder and CEO of PopCom, Inc. (formerly Solutions Vending, Inc.), the company behind PopCom Kiosks and the PopCom API, which provides a software solution to make vending machines more intelligent. She created the company after her own struggles to find vending machines that could sell her roll-up flat products, Flat Out of Heels, at high-traffic areas like airports.  She was awarded First place in the PowerMoves NOLA Big Break pitch Competition and second place in the 2016 SBA Innovate Her Challenge.

What makes you do what you do? 
I love solving big problems and working with amazing people to get it done.

How did you rise in the industry you are in?
After working in the vending industry for three years selling Flat Out of Heels in vending machines in airports and nightclubs, I was frustrated with the lack of data I was able to collect from my hardware. I also wanted more engaging and interactive experiences for my customers and after speaking with several retailers they felt the same way. That is when I decided to focus on PopCom and developing a software solution to solve the data problem in self-service retail.

Why did you take on this role/start this startup especially since this is perhaps a stretch or challenge for you (or viewed as one since you are not the usual leadership demographics)? 
The fact that I am not the usual, leadership demographic is the main reason why I was up for the challenge. The industry is in need of a change and I believe someone with a unique and different perspective and experience is needed. I look forward to collaborating with the industry leaders and veterans to build a product that everyone loves and finds value in.

Do you have a mentor that you look up to in your industries or did you look for one or how did that work? How did you make a match if you did, and how did you end up being mentored by him/her?
I am involved in several different industries and sectors – retail, self-service retail, hardware, software…so I have to learn a lot of information quickly.  There are several people that I look up to, follow their career, and seek advice from. I was fortunate to be able to participate in some of the country’s top accelerator and entrepreneurship development programs, including Techstars, Canopy Boulder, and the BIxel Exchange – the mentorship and network I gained from these programs has been invaluable and very instrumental in our progress.

Now as a leader how do you spot, develop, keep, grow and support your talent? 
I have learned that spotting talent takes time, it takes patience, and building relationships with people and networks to meet new people, most of my connections come from introductions. I focus on finding the right fit for the company culture, there is a lot of great talent out there, but the culture is different, I want us to be on the same wavelength. I am fortunate to have met some great people through the programs I was in that came on as mentors, advisors, and eventually full time team members. I take time to get to know my team individually and understand what their personal goals and ambitions are, ask them what their dream job looks like, understand their needs so they can be happy at work and be fulfilled. I believe in self-care and making mental health a priority, if a person is good within themselves they radiate positivity and are more productive.

Do you consciously or unconsciously support diversity and why?
I am a black woman so I am diversity. Naturally, we attract people we can relate to and have things in common, so I found that my team was heavily female and my diversity initiative was finding more men…when I thought about it I found it funny. Now I have a balanced team of men and women from diverse backgrounds, experiences, and perspectives which is exciting.

What is your take on what it takes to be a great leader in your industry and as a general rule of thumb? 
To be a great leader you have to be a team player, my rule is I never ask someone to do something that I would not do myself. I also have a rule to give the team the freedom and flexibility to work when and how they are most productive. That means some of us working different hours and being in the office different days, but happy team builds the dream!

Advice for others?
My advice is never give up if you believe in it. I started my company selling shoes in vending machines in 2011, it took me 7 years, a few failed hardware attempts, and many people telling me it would not work because the market was not ready. I was patient and what I believed would happen is happening. In May PopCom is bringing the PopShop to market, a next gen smart vending machine to sell and sample products. Our API will be ready in July and for the first time vending machine and kiosk owners can understand their conversion rates and have the level of data and analytics available that eCommerce stores have, but better. It has been a long journey and I feel it is just getting started, but I am only here because I never gave up.

If you’d like to get in touch with Dawn Dickson, please feel free to reach out to her on LinkedIn:

To learn more about PopCom, please click here.

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Callum Connects

Elaine Zhou, Co-Founder of China Women Equipping Center



Elaine went on a journey of self discovery and once she knew her true self she could be successful in her own business.

What’s your story?
I am very proud of where I came from and I am grateful for where I am living and working today. Singapore is my adopted home and it is my aim to always contribute to and serve this country and its people.
Twelve years ago, I moved to Singapore for an internship opportunity. I was twenty one years old and I didn’t have any friends, I didn’t speak English, I didn’t understand the culture or the customs. Everything was new and strange to me. Everything was difficult, but my parents had tremendous faith in me.
My parents have worked diligently on the family farm to raise us and send us to college. My parents had a huge influence on me. The important things I learnt from them are to love, to never give up, to be a hard worker and to have a can-do attitude. These are the qualities that I embrace in my daily life.

What excites you most about your industry?
We offer more than just training. Our business is a resource to be leveraged for transformation, improved teamwork, leadership behaviours, communication skills, relationship skills, coaching skills and increased job satisfaction and productivity.
Our passion and purpose is to help people grow as leaders and to create tremendous results by serving others well. We take people to daring destinations, beyond their imagination.
My greatest joy is to see people grow, change and transform and live a purposeful life; this is what motivates me to do more and do it well.

What’s your connection to Asia?
I was born in China and I have spent all my adult and professional life in Singapore.

Favourite city in Asia for business and why?
Singapore and China.
Singapore is a very sophisticated and systematic country. It is a structured and highly efficient business environment and people are generally nice and honest. Also, the convenience and diverse culture is a great advantage for people who want to settle down there, no matter if they are from the East or West. You always feel at home in Singapore.
I also like China because of its fast growth. The population and the market is here. However, it takes time to settle in because of the language barrier and the very different traditional culture. But you will also find it is very interesting and you’ll want to learn more about China. The people are nice if you know them well. It is always about relationship first and business second, and when you are in a business meeting, you really have to master the skill of “reading the air.” It is a skill to let people know and understand you; your values, your background, why you think in that way or why you do or do not do certain things. Doing business in China is like swimming in the ocean; it is an abundant ocean and it is full of risks. Always know your values and stay true to yourself and make decisions close to your heart. It will help you see things more clearly and get things done in a way that doesn’t violate your values.

What’s the best piece of advice you ever received?
“Be yourself, Elaine.” That is the best advice I have ever received. It was a big ‘aha’ moment for me. It was also the moment I truly and honestly looked within myself. I realized that when I am being my true self, and not trying to be someone else, I am able to connect with people instantly in a genuine and authentic way. It is a great feeling.

Who inspires you?
There are so many people who encourage me, lift me up and challenge me everyday. My mentor, John Maxwell who helped me discover my purpose in life; Michael Griffin, for his passion for Christ which is contagious and Wayne Dyer, my spiritual mentor who passed away in 2016. Also, people who are living with a purpose and striving everyday for their dream, they really inspire me. My clients, mentees and students. When I see that joy and peace in them, that inspires me to do more and do well. My team inspire me, especially when they said, “Elaine, I joined the business because of you.” They inspire me to make it work for the team and the business because it is beyond my own self interest. I am grateful for having so many people in my life who inspire me.

What have you just learnt recently that blew you away?
China is a big country, we all know that, and it is also an internet giant. Recently on a team meeting, one of the directors who manages a successful beauty business, shared with us, that everybody is on the internet, especially on WeChat. People are obsessed with online communities – for ordering food, getting taxis, forging relationships, connections and friends. Almost anything and everything can get done online. But right now, there is a new trend; more and more people want the “offline” experience. It usually takes one to two hours from one place to another in Beijing, but people want to make the effort to have a real connection with other people, to attend networks, seminars, workshops and business meetings.

If you had your time again, what would you do differently?
I started my first business when I was 24 years old, it failed. One year later, I started my second business and after a year and a half, I closed down the operation. After several painful experiences and two failed businesses, I started to look within myself, and seriously and intentionally invested in my personal growth at the age of 28. If I could turn back time, I wish I could have grown a lot earlier. I strongly believe that the level of our success is determined by the level of our self growth and we are always learning, everyday. But I also understand it is not the only way to live. I also consciously and intentionally try to live in the now. It is a beautiful and great way to live. In fact, I am grateful for what I have gone through; the pains, setbacks and challenges in my earlier life.

How do you unwind?
I like to stay connected with nature. For example, taking a walk barefoot on the grass and smelling the roses on the street. Having a beer or coffee along the riverside with friends; reading a good book; hunting for nice restaurants; swimming or running.

Favourite Asian destination for relaxation? Why?
Thailand – nice beaches, food and people.
Bali – fantastic beaches and food, great people.
Malaysia – Nice food and people, particularly Langkawi, Penang and KK.
Of course Singapore, it is always a place dear to my heart. It’s my home.
There are a lot of other interesting places in China which I am still exploring.

Everyone in business should read this book:
The Law of Success by Napoleon Hill
The Science of Getting Rich by Wallace Wattles
The Power of Now by Eckhart Tolle
Tao Te Ching: Change Your Thoughts, Change Your Life by Wayne Dyer
Developing the Leaders Within You by John C.Maxwell
Start with Why by Simon Sinek
These are some of the books that truly transformed my thinking and shaped my values.
I used to read a lot of different types of books, from sales, marketing, branding and management to different business models. I found it is really hard to master all of it and I was not optimizing my own strengths.
Entrepreneurship is a skill to be learnt. But it is really important to recognize what we are good at and what we are not so good at. We can not be everything.
Entrepreneurship is a journey of self-discovery and soul searching. It is all about learning and striving. We should try and always remember why we started our business in the first place.

Shameless plug for your business:
The China Women Equipping Center, is something both my team are I are very proud. We have put our hearts and souls into it, to help women in China grow and transform. As a developing country and with the rise of China, people are not lacking in money, everywhere is full of opportunity, but the challenge is the civilizations, values and faith. In fact the Chinese government puts a lot of effort into improving and shaping the international image to ensure it is making progress. But people are still facing a lot of pressure, especially women.
One of our business partners who is runs traditional Chinese medicine retail stores, shared that 80% of his patients are female, and the reason they are coming to see him are anxiety and depression.
Our China Women Equipping Center creates a safe and comfortable environment for women to help build their values and characters. My local team and I are very passionate about our mission and purpose. Beijing is our headquarters in China. We are planning to take three to six months to establish our business in Beijing and grow and expand to other major cities in China after that.

How can people connect with you?

This interview is part of the ‘Callum Connect’ series of more than 500 interviews

Callum Laing is an entrepreneur and investor based in Singapore. He has previously started, built and sold half a dozen businesses and is now a Partner at Unity-Group Private Equity and Co-Founder of The Marketing Group PLC. He is the author two best selling books ‘Progressive Partnerships’ and ‘Agglomerate’.

Connect with Callum here:
Download free copies of his books here:

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